Secondary Catalogue

Chemistry


Weird Wonderful Water

Weird Wonderful Water

Life in the Sea

This programme is about seawater. It is the most important liquid on Earth, not only from its sheer volume, but also because it has remarkable qualities. A few of them, like buoyancy, are common to all liquids - but seawater is also the cradle of...Show More
Newton's Third Law of Motion and Gravitation

Newton's Third Law of Motion and Gravitation

Motion and Its Applications

Newton’s Third Law of Motion states that to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation is equivalent to his Third Law of Motion in the sense that any two objects in the universe attract each...Show More
The Modern Periodic Table

The Modern Periodic Table

Periodic Classification of Elements

The elements in the Periodic Table are roughly divided into metals, metalloids and non - metals. There are seven periods in the Periodic Table. The vertical columns in a Periodic Table are called groups and there are 18 groups in the Periodic Table.
Rusting and Its Prevention

Rusting and Its Prevention

Physical and Chemical Changes

Rusting damages things made of iron, making the structures weak. Rusting can be prevented by the use of some methods.
Solids

Solids

Matter in Our Surroundings

Solid is that state of matter which retains a fixed shape and volume. The particles in solids are closely packed and hence the interparticle forces are the strongest in it. Solids cannot be compressed and posses rigidity.
Characteristics of Groups: Valence Electrons and Valency

Characteristics of Groups: Valence Electrons and Valency

Periodic Classification of Elements

The groups in the Periodic Table are arranged vertically. There are 18 groups in the Periodic Table. All the elements in one group have the same electronic configuration and hence the same number of valence electrons and the same valency.
Characteristics of Groups: Chemical Reactivity and Nature of Oxides

Characteristics of Groups: Chemical Reactivity and Nature of Oxides

Periodic Classification of Elements

The chemical reactivity of metals increases from the top to the bottom in a group, while the chemical reactivity of non-metals decreases as we move down in the group. On moving down in a group of the Periodic Table, there is no change in the...Show More
Combination Reaction

Combination Reaction

Physical and Chemical Changes

A combination reaction is a reaction, in which two or more elements or compounds combine together to form a single compound. For example, magnesium burns completely on heating, leaving behind a powdery white ash of magnesium oxide.
Physical Properties of Metals

Physical Properties of Metals

Metals and Non-metals

Metals are generally solid, hard and strong, have a metallic lustre and high melting and boiling points. Metals are also malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity.
Expansion in Solids

Expansion in Solids

Heat in the Environment

Solids expand on heating and contract on cooling. Different solids expand by different amounts for the same rise in temperature.
The Importance of pH in the Human Body

The Importance of pH in the Human Body

Acids, Bases and Salts

The pH in the human body tells about the value of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidity produced in the stomach, due to overeating, can be reduced by having an antacid, like the syrup milk of magnesia.
Fats

Fats

Components of Food

Fats are the nutrients which provide almost double the amount of energy as compared to carbohydrates. All types of oils and nuts, butter, milk and meat are excellent sources of fats. When eaten in excess, fats get stored in the liver, under the...Show More
Factors Affecting Evaporation of Liquids

Factors Affecting Evaporation of Liquids

Matter in Our Surroundings

Liquids changes into vapour by the process of evaporation. The factors that affect the rate of evaporation of liquids are temperature, surface area, wind speed, and humidity.
Extraction of Moderately Reactive Metals: Reduction of Metal Oxides to Metal

Extraction of Moderately Reactive Metals: Reduction of Metal Oxides to Metal

Metals and Non-metals

Moderately reactive metals are extracted from their metal oxides by the process called reduction. The reduction of metal oxides, by heating with carbon, in the form of coke, is called smelting, and the reduction of metal oxides to metal, using...Show More
Electroplating

Electroplating

Chemical Effects of Electric Current

The process by which a thin layer of a metal is coated on a different metal object by means of electrolysis is called electroplating. Electroplating is done mainly to prevent the corrosion of the inner metal and to give it an attractive look.
Destructive Distillation of Coal

Destructive Distillation of Coal

Coal and Petroleum

Coal is a fossil fuel and mainly consists of carbon and small amounts of hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen. Heating coal, in the absence of air, is known as destructive distillation of coal. It yields various useful products like coke, coal...Show More
Characteristics of Groups: Metallic Character

Characteristics of Groups: Metallic Character

Periodic Classification of Elements

On moving down in a group of the periodic table, the metallic character of the elements increases while their non-metallic character decreases. Metals have a tendency to lose electrons to form positive ions and are hence known as electropositive...Show More
Characteristics of Particles in Liquids

Characteristics of Particles in Liquids

Pure Substances and Mixtures

Liquids have a fixed volume but no fixed shape. The spaces between the particles in liquids are almost the same as in solids. However, the particles in liquids are free to move. The speed of the movement of the molecules in a liquid decreases...Show More
How a Change Can Happen

How a Change Can Happen

Changes around Us

Objective: To study the ways a change is brought about. Learning outcomes - students will be able to: 1. Describe the various ways to bring about a change 2. Illustrate the process of mixing to bring change
The Haber Process

The Haber Process

Chemical Equilibrium

How is chemical equilibrium important for making ammonia? This video demonstrates how an understanding of chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier’s principle is applied in the Haber-Bosch Process, making the production of ammonia more efficient....Show More
Changing Equilibrium Systems: Increasing the Amount of a Product

Changing Equilibrium Systems: Increasing the Amount of a Product

Chemical Equilibrium

What happens when you add more product to an equilibrium? This video demonstrates how an increase in products affects reaction rates in accordance with Le Chatelier’s principle. Students will observe how the appearance of a solution of sodium...Show More
Equilibrium Law

Equilibrium Law

Chemical Equilibrium

What is an equilibrium constant and how do we work it out? This video explains various aspects of the equilibrium constant, including what it is, how to calculate it and how it can be affected by other factors like temperature and pressure....Show More
Competing Equilibria

Competing Equilibria

Chemical Equilibrium

How is chemical equilibrium important for cellular respiration? This video explains how two competing equilibrium reactions involving haemoglobin are at work in the process of cellular respiration. Clear explanations of this life-or-death example...Show More
Changing Equilibrium Systems: Increasing the Pressure

Changing Equilibrium Systems: Increasing the Pressure

Chemical Equilibrium

What happens when you increase the pressure on an equilibrium? This video demonstrates how changing pressure affects reaction rates in accordance with Le Chatelier’s principle. Students will observe the colour of a gaseous mixture of nitrogen...Show More
Changing Equilibrium Systems: Changing the Temperature

Changing Equilibrium Systems: Changing the Temperature

Chemical Equilibrium

What happens when you turn up the heat in an equilibrium? This video demonstrates how changing temperature affects reaction rates in accordance with Le Chatelier’s principle. Students will observe the colour of a solution of cobaltous chloride...Show More